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Skybook cheating Video Poker (Amigotechs software)

Posted by ThePOGG on Apr 13, 2015


In January this year we were contacted by a player with gambling site Skybook casino via our complaint service (you can see the complaint here -

The player had played the 2 Ways Royal game at Skybook casino and believe that they’d received a statistically unlikely result – one that would not have occurred in a random or fairly functioning game.

The player reported playing 560 hands and NOT ONCE receiving a hand of 3 of a Kind or Better. This seemed statistically significant enough to warrant further investigation.


Analysis of the Main Game


When playing optimally the probability of receiving 3 of a Kind or better in the 2 Ways Royal game that Skybook offers is 0.109805 and as such the probability of any single hand resulting in a hand of 2 Pairs or less is 1-0.109805 = 0.890195.

To calculate the probability of not receiving 3 of a Kind or better over 560 hands, we take the probability of receiving 2 Pair or less and put it to the power of 560

0.890195^560 = 0.000000000000000000000000000053

If we convert that probability into odds we get;

1 in 18867924528301900000000000000 or approximately 1 in 1.88x10^28

To put this figure in a perspective that can be understood, rough estimates of the number of stars in the observable universe are between 7x10^22 and 7x10^24 (source - This means that if we played 2700 sets of 560 hand for EVERY STAR IN THE OBSERVABLE UNIVERSE we would only have played just enough to expect to have seen a single set with no 3 of a Kind or better hands ((1.88*10^28)/(7*10^24)= 2695.42).

Put another way, the odds of winning the jackpot on the UK National Lottery are 1 in 13983816. The odds of this event occurring are substantially longer than the odds of a player buying a single ticket for three different National Lottery draws and winning the jackpot on each of the 3 draws (1 in 2734494804479010000000 or 1 in 2.73x10^21).

In short if the player has played optimally there is no way that this result could have occurred when playing a game that operated fairly.

The above analysis depends on the player playing every hand optimally. This assumption had to be checked and confirmed before any conclusions could be drawn. For instance, if a player intentionally discarded winning hands or any cards that may be likely to result in winning hands it may have been possible to artificially force this type of result (though there doesn’t seem to be any good reason that a player would choose to do this). As such we requested copies of the player’s game history to be extracted from the Skybook casino casino software (Amigotechs). The player provided the requested game history in the form of both screen shots and a video to ensure against any claims of forgery.

The below table shows a complete hand history for the playing session, which lasted a little less than 1 hour and 20 minutes, including the starting hand, the finishing hand, whether the player’s decision was optimal, if not what the Expected Value reduction was and what the final hand paid as;



Hand Game ID Starting Hand Hand Finishing Hand Correct Strategy EV Reduction Result
1 61030365 As4cAc2c4s 2 Pair As4cAc8d4s Y 2 Pair
2 61030359 Ac6dKsQdJs Nothing Ac6cKsQdJs Y Loss
3 61030356 Qc8c9c6hJh Nothing Qc8c9c5h2d N -0.02 Loss
4 61030354 2d8h2hAcJs Pair 2d3c2h9dTd Y Loss
5 61030349 9s9cKhQdKc 2 Pair 9s9cKh7hKc Y 2 Pair
6 61030343 4sJs3sKhAh Nothing 5c5sKdKhAh Y 2 Pair
7 61030338 9d3h3sTs2s Pair Qs3h3sKcAs Y Loss
8 61030335 JdQd4h9c4d Pair TdTc4hQs4d Y 2 Pair
9 61030329 3c8sKdTsAs Nothing 4d3sKd2sAs Y Loss
10 61030321 KcAdJs3s9d Nothing Kc2hJs4sKd Y Pair
11 61030316 7hTd3c2dQd Nothing 4hTdQs6hQd Y Pair
12 61030313 7cKcJc2d5s Nothing 4hKcJc6s8c Y Loss
13 61030310 8d5d3c8hKs Pair 8dKdJd8h3D Y Loss
14 61030308 3c4c9hTh3s Pair 3c4d8dJd3s Y Loss
15 61030300 4dJd8d5d6h Nothing 4dJd8d5d2s Y Loss
16 61030286 2d3c2c4c8c Pair 8d3c2c4cTh Y Loss
17 61030281 4cQs5sKs3h Nothing 9sQsQhKs9d Y 2 Pair
18 61030277 9c4d5dQd6c Nothing 7cAdQsQd8c Y Pair
19 61030273 4sTd8cAsKh Nothing 9h7c9cAsKh Y Loss
20 61030271 4d6c8h4c9s Pair 4dQdTh4cAd Y Loss
21 61030265 5dJc9hTd6s Nothing 5hJc9cKc6d Y Loss
22 61030246 2cJhQdThAs Nothing 2sJhQdThAs Y Loss
23 61030234 9s3s2s9hQs Pair 9s3s2sQcQs Y Pair
24 61030228 7c4sKc8h9h Nothing KsQsKcAd9s Y Pair
25 61030224 Tc3d8c3hJs Pair 6h3d8d3h8s Y 2 Pair
26 61030219 6hAdJd2sQc Nothing 4sAdJd9hQs Y Loss
27 61030217 8d9d7cKs8c Pair 8dKd2s6d8c Y Loss
28 61030210 Jd4s8hQc6c Nothing Jd6d2dQcQh Y Pair
29 61030204 Kc4s6dTs8c Nothing KcJsQs6c7c Y Loss
30 61030202 6hTs2dJcTc Pair QdTs2h7sTc Y Loss
31 61030196 3sTh6d8c5h Nothing 5sQc2sTd2h Y Loss
32 61030189 4d6dAsQhKd Nothing Ac8hJhQhKd Y Loss
33 61030187 Js9h5d7d5s Pair 9s8d5dQh5s Y Loss
34 61030184 2c9sAc5d7d Nothing AdQcAc2hKh Y Pair
35 61030180 Kh7d9sTs2h Nothing KhTdJd8c3d Y Loss
36 61030178 6hQd4c4s7s Pair As9h4c4s8s Y Loss
37 61030171 6s5cTs6cAs Pair 6s5d9d6c7d Y Loss
38 61030166 3h6cKc8c7s Nothing 6hJdKc5cJh Y Pair
39 61030160 2sQcKs5dTs Nothing QsQcKsTd3s Y Pair
40 61030155 Th7sQd4sKs Nothing 9d6sQdAhKs Y Loss
41 61030150 9sKc6d7d8h Nothing 9sQd6d7d8h Y Loss
42 61030144 5c6hKsAcAd Pair 5s2sJdAcAd Y Pair
43 61030141 5s2hJhQc8h Nothing 6cKcJhQcTh Y Loss
44 61030135 AcTh4dAhKc Pair Ac4s9dAh3s Y Pair
45 31030131 KhJh3hKd3s 2 Pair JKh9d3hKd3s Y 2 Pair
46 61030127 QhJh5cTs7s Nothing QhJh3c9c9h Y Loss
47 61030123 Jc3sTdJs7d Pair JcKs8cJs4s Y Pair
48 61030118 5dAc6sTcKh Nothing 3dAcTh5sKh Y Loss
49 61030112 Ts7d7s6hJd Pair 2c7d7sQh2s Y 2 Pair
50 61030108 KsQhQdTd4d Pair 2hQhQd8s3h Y Pair
51 61030102 5c6d7s6s2h Pair 8h6d2c6sTs Y Loss
52 61030096 6hKdJc5c5h Pair 2sAd2c5c5h Y 2 Pair
53 61030090 7c4dKhAs7d Pair 7cTh6s9s7d Y Loss
54 61030085 5d7d9cAcJh Nothing 2s3h5sAcJh Y Loss
55 61030079 8dKh9s7sAd Nothing 7cKhJdQhAd Y Loss
56 61030074 Jc5h4dQdKd Nothing 4sAsJdQdKd Y Loss
57 61030068 7hKcAcTd3h Nothing 9sKcAc3s5c Y Loss
58 61030066 4sQc4h8h2c Pair 4s2s4h7sTs Y Loss
59 61030061 AcTd3c7sKd Nothing Ac4dKhQcKd Y Pair
60 61030055 2sQdJcKdAc Nothing 4cQdJcKdAc Y Loss
61 61030049 9c7dAh2h8h Nothing 2s8cAh9h3c Y Loss
62 61030035 2d9s3h6c4h Nothing 2c6dTs3d2s Y Loss
63 61030026 6c3d5c5d2d Pair Ad3d9h5d2d Y Loss
64 61030022 7c6cJcKd6s Pair 2d6c9d4d6s Y Loss
65 61030017 4d6s8s9d3h Nothing 4sJs8cAs9s Y Loss
66 61030006 Jc3dKcQd9d Nothing Jc6cKcQd9d N >-0.03 Loss
67 61029998 Jh4d3c6dQd Nothing Jh5dKd9dQd Y Loss
68 61029991 As2d5s3c5d Pair 8dKc5sQd5d Y Loss
69 61029987 AdJhKc4h4s Pair 9s5cTd4h4s Y Loss
70 61029985 8d4sJd3d3c Pair 8hJs6d3d3c Y Loss
71 61029979 9h2c4dAdTd Nothing 4c3dKcAdAh Y Pair
72 61029971 JdAcQd6dTh Nothing JdQsQd4h6c Y Pair
73 61029967 9s7d7cTsTd 2 Pair 8h7d7cTsTd Y 2 Pair
74 61029961 AcTh9sQhKh Nothing KsTh9cQhKh Y Pair
75 61029957 5h2d8cKhAc Nothing 7cQd5dKhAc Y Loss
76 61029955 8d6cQs3c6s Pair 3s6cKdAd6s Y Loss
77 61029950 4d7d2c2s8s Pair AhQc2c2s4s Y Loss
78 61029947 9c5d9dTdKc Pair 9c7c9dTcKd Y Loss
79 61029944 Kh8dJc3h6s Nothing Kh7cJc4c5s Y Loss
80 61029942 3h3s7s9h7d 2 Pair 3h3s7s4d7d Y 2 Pair
81 61029939 5cThTd4h6h Pair 3cThTd8c3h Y 2 Pair
82 61029937 6c3d4s8cJh Nothing 3h5sQd9cJh Y Loss
83 61029933 9dAc5s4dKs Nothing AdAc2s8cKs Y Pair
84 61029929 2dTc5cKdAh Nothing As5sKcKdAh Y 2 Pair
85 61029925 Js5h4c4hAs Pair Ac8d4c4h2c Y Loss
86 61029922 TsAdQc6hQh Pair 7d8dQc7cQh Y 2 Pair
87 61029919 3sKhQsAh8d Nothing 6sKh3dAh9d Y Loss
88 61029915 Kh6s3c8cTc Nothing Kh3sKs7d9h Y Pair
89 61029912 3d3c7h2dTh Pair 3d3cTs9c9h Y 2 Pair
90 61029909 6s3s5c9sJh Nothing 5sJs8s9cJh Y Pair
91 61029906 7hKd9d2cJd Nothing 4sKd9d9dJd Y Loss
92 61029902 JcQhQdTdAh Pair AsQhQd4s5d Y Pair
93 61029899 Js4c6hAsTd Nothing JsAh6sAs5d Y Pair
94 61029896 6h8cAhQs4s Nothing 4cThAhQs8s Y Loss
95 61029892 JcQc7cAd6d Nothing JcQc5dQdKc Y Pair
96 61029887 7dKc8sAsTc Nothing 4sKcKhAsJc Y Pair
97 61029884 7hJs6s2hTh Nothing 3cJs8dAc3h Y Loss
98 61029879 Th7c2h3sJc Nothing Kd3d3hTdJc Y Loss
99 61029873 3c7h8h9h6h Nothing Jc7h8h9h6h Y Loss
100 61029870 6dAsJs6sJh 2 Pair 6dTsJs6sJh Y 2 Pair
101 61029861 AhJdTs9cKd Nothing AsJd3cKhKd Y Pair
102 61029856 2cThAsKd2s Pair 2cJc5h3h2s Y Loss
103 61029852 Tc5d8s6cJs Nothing Ks8h2sKcJs Y Pair
104 61029847 Tc4hAsQh5s Nothing Td2cAsQhKc Y Loss
105 61029843 8d9cKc2sKs Pair 3hAdKc2hKs Y Pair
106 61029838 6c8s2sKhAh Nothing Qs2c2dKhAh Y Loss
107 61029836 4sQs5dTh9d Nothing 8cQsKd8d9h Y Loss
108 61029833 Ts3dAd4d7c Nothing 7h3dAd4d9h Y Loss
109 61029830 3h6d8d2c4d Nothing Ks6d8d6s4d Y Loss
110 61029826 Ad2d6sJhTs Nothing Ad5sAcJh5h Y 2 Pair
111 61029823 As4dKsAh9h Pair As4h4sAh5c Y 2 Pair
112 61029820 Kc2c8dKh5s Pair Kc9s8cKhJs Y Pair
113 61029816 6d7c3cAc9d Nothing QcAs9cAc6c Y Pair
114 61029813 5dJcAdKcTc Nothing 8cJc4sKcTc Y Loss
115 61029808 4c9h3hAsKh Nothing Js7hQcAsKh Y Loss
116 61029801 2sQd4c9hKs Nothing 8dQdAsQhKs Y Pair
117 61029796 AhJh5cTd6c Nothing AhJh9s9d7h Y Loss
118 61029794 6d3s3h8cQs Pair Jd3s3h5c2s Y Loss
119 61029789 ThAc7cJhAs Pair 9cAcQhTcAs Y Pair
120 61029778 7cKs8c5s4c Nothing AcKsJdAs5s Y Pair
121 61029774 3d9c7hKd3s Pair 3dQcTs6d3s Y Loss
122 61029771 TcKdTs6cJd Pair Tc5dTs2s7h Y Loss
123 61029766 JcJd7h9c3h Pair JcJdAh8c9s Y Pair
124 61029762 5sTc8cKc4c Nothing 2hTc8cKc4c Y Loss
125 61029759 7s5d5s6dJs Pair 7h5d5sKd4d Y Loss
126 61029752 8d7cJc5hKs Nothing Th9dJcKcKs Y Pair
127 61029746 4d7d2d2hKd Pair 4d7d2d5sKd Y Loss
128 61029740 QdJd7c6cKs Nothing QdJd3h7s2c Y Loss
129 61029735 7sAc5c9cTd Nothing TcAc6s5sQs Y Loss
130 61029731 6cKd7s9cQh Nothing 6sKdJhQdQh Y Pair
131 61029725 As8c6d2dTh Nothing As3cTc7cJc Y Loss
132 61029714 Ts5h6s2s3s Nothing TcAs6s2s3s Y Loss
133 61029710 9d7sJs4c4d Pair 3s5sTd4c4d Y Loss
134 61029704 9sQc5dAd8h Nothing AcQcQhAdTs Y 2 Pair
135 61029697 KcQd4d7s8d Nothing KcQd6c2d6d Y Loss
136 61029692 Td4s6d9h8c Nothing 5sAs9cKhQh Y Loss
137 61029687 Kd9d2h2c5d Pair 9s7c2h2c3h Y Loss
138 61029685 Ac3c6d6sTd Pair 3h5s6d6sKh Y Loss
139 61029679 Ah3d3h2hJd Pair 6c3d3h6s7h Y 2 Pair
140 61029674 5s6s9s9d3h Pair 5hQs9s9dKc Y Loss
141 61029868 4sKh4hQdQc 2 Pair 4s6h4hQdQc Y 2 Pair
142 61029664 4c7d6cJd8d Nothing 9d7d2hJd8d Y Loss
143 61029659 9d2cKs4hAs Nothing 5h9hKsQcAs Y Loss
144 61029654 8sAc3c9h5h Nothing 4cAc9c4h7h Y Loss
145 61029648 6s3s6h3c2d 2 Pair 6s3s6h3c5s Y 2 Pair
146 61029643 7sAhJsJcAd 2 Pair 8sAhJsJcAd Y 2 Pair
147 61029640 JsTsJh7h6d Pair JsTdJhThQs Y 2 Pair
148 61029635 3h9hJs9h9c Pair 4c9h2cJc9c Y Loss
149 61029629 4d5h7hTc2h Nothing 3h6c9h6d3c Y 2 Pair
150 61029621 4cJsAc2sTc Nothing 3dJsAcQcJd Y Pair
151 61029617 KdTd3s4cQs Nothing KdJd5hAcQs Y Loss
152 61029613 5dAsTdJdJs Pair 7hQsJd7sJs Y 2 Pair
153 61029609 Jc6c7d6dAc Pair 4c6c7s6dQd Y Loss
154 61029605 4hJs2d9h4c Pair 4h3sQdTc4c Y Loss
155 61029601 8s2dKh6c9s Nothing 9d4dKh7dAd Y Loss
156 61029597 3cJdKh4s7d Nothing QhJdKh5sJc Y Pair
157 61029593 5c7hQhAsJd Nothing 9cQsQhAdJd Y Pair
158 61029591 3dAh3c7c4d Pair 3dTd3cKd8d Y Loss
159 61029587 TcThAh6c9h Pair TcTh6s2s2d Y 2 Pair
160 61029585 Th2c2hQsJh Pair Td2c2h8s9d Y Loss
161 61029581 JsAs7d7s8h Pair Ks4h7d7sQc Y Loss
162 61029577 2s2hTd9s3h Pair 2s2hKd6hAs Y Loss
163 61029573 6h9cTsTc6c 2 Pair 6h8cTsTc6c Y 2 Pair
164 61029570 2d2s4sKh5d Pair 2d2s6sTc9h Y Loss
165 61029566 9h2s9s6s7c Pair 9h8h9s3s3h Y 2 Pair
166 61029561 QdAsQc8c5c Pair Qd5hQcJs4d Y Pair
167 61029558 JcJdTs2d6c Pair JcJd7sAdQs Y Pair
168 61029553 2sQd9h2c9s 2 Pair 2s8d9h2c9s Y 2 Pair
169 61029546 Kd9hAc9d6d Pair 4d9hKc9dTc Y Loss
170 61029538 6dAsJh7s5h Nothing 9dAsJh3hAd Y Pair
171 61029534 9hTd4d2c8s Nothing 8c4sQs5h7h Y Loss
172 61029519 Qd4hAhJd7h Nothing QdKcAsJd9h Y Loss
173 61029511 8d9d6d3c9c Pair Ks9d5dQh9c Y Loss
174 61029506 Qs8s8h6sTs Pair Qs8s6h6sTs Y Loss
175 61029501 2s9cTs3cKc Nothing 6c7hTcAsKc Y Loss
176 61029496 4cTdQh8c3h Nothing 3dQdQhJc2d Y Pair
177 61029479 5h8h3s6sJs Nothing Qc2h9sAcJs Y Loss
178 61029475 3sTcJc7c5d Nothing QsTcJc7c4d Y Loss
179 61029472 8c4d9dKcAd Nothing 2dKh2cKcAd Y 2 Pair
180 61029469 7hTc4sTd2d Pair 3hTcQhTd8h Y Loss
181 61029466 4cJc6dJd8h Pair 3cJcThJdAc Y Pair
182 61029463 9sKd4c7sQh Nothing AcKdKs8cQh Y Pair
183 61029457 7dQd7h4d9h Pair 7d5d7h9s4s Y Loss
184 61029453 2d7d9h8sKs Nothing 2s5sJc6cKs Y Loss
185 61029449 ThJs5d6s8h Nothing 8dJs2h3dAh Y Loss
186 61029445 2d7sKcAs7h Pair 2h7s3s6s7h Y Loss
187 61029441 QdAhQhAd6h 2 Pair QdAhQhAd5s Y 2 Pair
188 61029438 6h7d5c3dQc Nothing 4cAhJhTdQc Y Loss
189 61029434 6d8c8hAd4h Pair 2h8c8hKh4s Y Loss
190 61029426 8hTd7c5h4c Nothing JsTsAh4h3d Y Loss
191 61029423 JhKdJc2s7c Pair Jh4dJc4c6s Y 2 Pair
192 61029418 Ts9h8c5s7h Nothing Ts9h8c8s7h Y Loss
193 61029411 8h5s9d4hQc Nothing 5d2c4sJsQc Y Loss
194 61029405 9d6sTsKdQh Nothing 4c2s8sKdQh Y Loss
195 61029398 5c2sKhTc3s Nothing AsAhKh9s5h Y Pair
196 61029394 2cJh2dAd5h Pair 2c8s2dKhQs Y Loss
197 61029386 Ts9hQcTcKh Pair Ts3h5cTc5d Y 2 Pair
198 61029381 3dAdKd5c9c Nothing 4dAdKd8h2c Y Loss
199 61029377 9dAh5cAd4h Pair QcAh8sAd5h Y Pair
200 61029371 5s6h4c6s3h Pair Th6hJh6s4d Y Loss
201 61029367 6hKd7h8sQh Nothing 6hKd5dThQh Y Loss
202 61029360 7h4d6dAcJd Nothing 7h4d6dKsJd N -0.02 Loss
203 61029355 5h9dTd3c2s Nothing 8d5dKs2h6s Y Loss
204 61029350 Js8h2c3d3s Pair JdAdJh3d3s Y 2 Pair
205 61029344 5c7dAsKs3d Nothing QdThAsKs8d Y Loss
206 61029337 JcTc6s2h8s Nothing JcTcThKhQd Y Loss
207 61029332 Td3h4s7d6s Nothing Qs4c6h8dQh Y Pair
208 61029325 6h4s5hTsKd Nothing Kc9h3d7hKd Y Pair
209 61029321 5sThAs5c9s Pair 5s8h4d5cKc Y Loss
210 61029316 3c2d8h9cAc Nothing 6sThAh4cAc Y Pair
211 61029308 3d6d4sAc5s Nothing 3d6d4s9c5s Y Loss
212 61029302 2h7cJsJd4c Pair Kh5sJsJd2c Y Pair
213 61029296 2c7sQh4hTc Nothing 4dKcQh9s8h Y Loss
214 61029292 3sAdAh4cTd Pair QhAdAh8sKs Y Pair
215 61029286 4d5sQcAs6s Nothing 6hAhQcAs3c Y Pair
216 61029281 As8c5h6d2d Nothing As6h4h9c4c Y Loss
217 61029275 8hTdKh7c8c Pair 8h3dJs7d8c Y Loss
218 61029261 9dJd8sTd5h Nothing 9dJd8sTd8h Y Loss
219 61029255 6sQs7c3h2c Nothing 6dQsKd7d5c Y Loss
220 61029250 As3s8sKh5h Nothing As7hAdKhJc Y Pair
221 61029244 Ac4cKh2d9c Nothing Ac2cKhJcTh Y Loss
222 61029236 8c3d7d9d2h Nothing Ah3h5c2dAd Y Pair
223 61029229 Ac4s2c6sTh Nothing AsQh2dTsJd Y Loss
224 61029226 2s5dTs2d9s Pair 2s4h8h2d6h Y Loss
225 61029221 6s5hKcKhTd Pair Qs5dKcKh9h Y Pair
226 61029214 Qs2s8sJdKh Nothing Qs6h4hJdKh Y Loss
227 61029209 Qc6hTc2h8s Nothing QcThTc3c8h Y Loss
228 61029204 Qs9c2sJs3d Nothing Qs4h4dJs6c Y Loss
229 61029178 9c9sTc3hJs Pair 9c9sTdJh7d Y Loss
230 61029173 ThQdQh4h3c Pair KcQdQh4h3c Y Pair
231 61029167 5dKhTh2s5h Pair 5d9sKsAd5h Y Loss
232 61029162 Jh6d6cKh5h Pair 7h6d6c5sJc Y Loss
233 61029158 3h8cTsQhQs Pair 3c2cKhQhQs Y Pair
234 61029153 4dKhQc4s3s Pair 4d3cQs4sJs Y Loss
235 61029150 Ts5d7c5hQs Pair Th5d9h5hKs Y Loss
236 61029147 Th9h3s2sTd Pair Th2h5d2dTd Y 2 Pair
237 61029144 Ts5hTd7c9s Pair TsJcTdJd8c Y 2 Pair
238 61029141 6h3s4cJd6d Pair 6h4dKh5h6d Y Loss
239 61029140 8h7h4sTs7d Pair 3h7hTcAs7d Y Loss
240 61029137 3h7dAs5cAh Pair 2sJsAsJdAd Y 2 Pair
241 61029134 Kd7cQs8s4c Nothing Kd4hQsKhQd Y 2 Pair
242 61029129 5c3sThKc6d Nothing 2dAh9cKc3d Y Loss
243 61029125 9s3c9h5c6d Pair 9s5d9hAd7d Y Loss
244 61029120 5s2h4h7sAc Nothing Ks8s9dThAc Y Loss
245 61029115 ThQh5hAd4h Nothing ThQh5hTc4h Y Loss
246 61029111 Qh9dQcKc2c Pair Qh4dQc5h2d Y Pair
247 61029109 As5c9sKcAd Pair As2c6s2hAd Y 2 Pair
248 61029106 9dQdQs7s4c Pair AsQdQs6c9h Y Pair
249 61029103 9h8c5c4c5d Pair 7dJh5c9c5d Y Loss
250 61029099 Tc4cAsQhTh Pair Tc8dQdJhTh Y Loss
251 61029097 Js4cJh6h5h Pair Js2cJh7sTc Y Pair
252 61029094 Qc6sTs3hTc Pair 3s8cTs7dTc Y Loss
253 61029089 Th5cKs9hQh Nothing Th5dJs9hQh Y Loss
254 61029083 9d2d8c7h3d Nothing Qc2c5hJd9h Y Loss
255 61029076 Jh5h6sAh3h Nothing Jh5h5sAh3h Y Loss
256 61029072 8hAc7sKd6c Nothing 7cAc9sKd6d Y Loss
257 61029067 Js6c9s3d5h Nothing Js4d3cKdAh Y Loss
258 61029061 8cTd9s8dKc Pair 8cJsTh8d6s Y Loss
259 61029035 JdKs9c7hQd Nothing Jd6hKhTsQd Y Loss
260 61029030 3dKhTsKs8c Pair 8hKh5cKs9s Y Pair
261 61029024 6cAc9d5c5s Pair Jd2h4c5c5s Y Loss
262 61029017 AdKd2sJhKs Pair 4cKdTs7hKs Y Pair
263 61028991 6hAh8hJs9s Nothing 6sAh9cJs9h Y Loss
264 61028985 Qd3c6sJh7c Nothing Qd6c4hJhQh Y Pair
265 61028977 7d8cTd2d4d Nothing 7d9sTd2d4d Y Loss
266 61028970 9s9cTc8sQh Pair 9s9c4s8h7d Y Loss
267 61028965 Jh9s6s3cQh Nothing Jh6hQdJdQh Y 2 Pair
268 61028957 7s5dJd6hJh Pair 3c7cJd4cJh Y Pair
269 61028944 8c4hAsQh6d Nothing 2s8sAsQhTs Y Loss
270 61028938 8s7sQd4d8c Pair 8sQs3d9h8c Y Loss
271 61028930 9s7s6cTsTh Pair 4d2cKcTsTh Y Loss
272 61028923 TdTs6dKhAs Pair TdTs5hQcAc Y Loss
273 61028906 Jh4dQd8d9c Nothing Jh7dQd9sQs Y Pair
274 61028903 3dAs3c7hJs Pair 3dJc3cTs9s Y Loss
275 61028894 JcQcTd8d4s Nothing JcQc4c9c4d Y Loss
276 61028889 8h5s4c5dQs Pair 8d5sTh5d8c Y 2 Pair
277 61028885 7d6cKh7s9d Pair 7d9hQh7sQd Y 2 Pair
278 61028870 JcJs6hKsTs Pair JcJs5c7d5s Y 2 Pair
279 61028867 Ad4hQs4dKc Pair Ts4h8d4d9c Y Loss
280 61028863 Ks3h4c7hTc Nothing Ks8cTh3c4s Y Loss
281 61028856 Jd9cQdKhAd Nothing Jd4hQdKhAd Y Loss
282 61028853 4hAdTh7cKc Nothing 3dAd5sJsKc Y Loss
283 61028847 Ts7s7h5s9s Pair Ts7s9c5s9s Y Loss
284 61028843 ThTs2h7sAs Pair ThTsQd8s8c Y 2 Pair
285 61028841 3hAc4c4h9d Pair TdTc4c4hJh Y 2 Pair
286 61028835 5hQd7h4s2h Nothing 8cQd3c2cJc Y Loss
287 61028832 QsQc9dtc3c Pair QsQcAh8c3d Y Pair
288 61028828 7s4d5cAdQd Nothing 8c3s7hAdQd Y Loss
289 61028822 Ts3c9d2h6h Nothing 7dKh4dJc2s Y Loss
290 61028814 4hKh4sAd2d Pair 4hKc4sAhTs Y Loss
291 61028812 Jd6c8sJc6d 2 Pair Jd6c8dJc6d Y 2 Pair
292 61028797 Jd5hAs4hTd Nothing Jd9cJs7hTd Y Pair
293 61028794 9cKsKc5dTh Pair 3dKsKc3h9s Y 2 Pair
294 61028791 9h4c2h4h3c Pair 7s4c3s4hTd Y Loss
295 61028785 JcTh3c9s8c Nothing JcThKc9s8c Y Loss
296 61028780 TdAc2dKc7h Nothing JhAc4dKc2s Y Loss
297 61028775 5c6d7sQs7c Pair 4d2c7sJs7c Y Loss
298 61028771 Js9c6d9h3h Pair 8s9c7c9hTc Y Loss
299 61028761 KhTh8dJc5d Nothing Kh7c4sJc8c Y Loss
300 61028755 5sQs9d8s4h Nothing JsQs8cJc5d Y Pair
301 61028751 9cKc3s9h8h Pair 9c7s4c9hAs Y Loss
302 61028744 3s7sAdQs6s Nothing 3s7sJcQs6s Y Loss
303 61028737 7hJsKsAdQc Nothing 9cJsKsAdQc Y Loss
304 61028735 5dTs7d2sTc Pair 3sTs6h8cTc Y Loss
305 61028729 6d7h3h4sQs Nothing 8s2d5s5dQs Y Loss
306 61028725 7h6d9d8cKc Nothing 7h6d9d8cQh Y Loss
307 61028720 Qd3d4d4h8s Pair Td5d4d4hQh Y Loss
308 61028712 Jc9c6h8s7h Nothing Qh9c6h8s7h Y Loss
309 61028705 Ks3d3hJdQs Pair 9h3d3h2sAc Y Loss
310 61028699 4cKhQh9h2s Nothing 3sKhQh9hQc Y Pair
311 61028691 3c7dAs6cKs Nothing Qd2sAsQhKs Y Pair
312 61028684 3c3hQsJdAc Pair 3c3hJs5c6c Y Loss
313 61028680 Jd2d3s8c7s Nothing JdTh4d4hQd Y Loss
314 61028671 QsAdJd9dKc Nothing QsAdJd9sKc Y Loss
315 61028663 8h6hQsTs4c Nothing ThQcQsTsAc Y 2 Pair
316 61028655 As4c5s3cQh Nothing As8cJd6hQh Y Loss
317 61028650 Qs3h6d6c5h Pair 9c3d6d6c2h Y Loss
318 61028647 7s2h2c3dQd Pair Tc2h2c4cJh Y Loss
319 61028641 Kd5sKc4d4h 2 Pair Kd8sKc4d4h Y 2 Pair
320 61028626 JcAh7c8hQd Nothing Jc3h5h2cQd Y Loss
321 61028619 6c7d5hKh9c Nothing 8d3dQsKh8s Y Loss
322 61028612 6dKs8s3d8h Pair 4s6s8s5h8h Y Loss
323 61028604 8c9hJh4cKs Nothing 7d3hJhAsKs Y Loss
324 61028599 7d4cKc6s9d Nothing 7c6hKc6dAs Y Loss
325 61028593 Th7h8s3sAs Nothing 8d3c2sJdAs Y Loss
326 61028590 4sJs3h3sJh 2 Pair QhJs3h3sJh Y 2 Pair
327 61028583 8d9s3dQc8c Pair 8d6s5c7d8c Y Loss
328 61028578 Jd7cQc2c6d Nothing JdKcQcTc6s Y Loss
329 61028577 QdQcTsTc6s 2 Pair QdQcTsTc7s Y 2 Pair
330 61028570 4cJc6cQh2h Nothing 5sJc2sQh5h Y Loss
331 61028565 KdJh7dKhAs Pair Kd3d8hKh9h Y Pair
332 61028544 9d7cJd2sQd Nothing 9d2cJd5dQd Y Loss
333 61028540 3sKcJdAc6c Nothing 8dKc2hAc6h Y Loss
334 61028526 7d9cJhTd6d Nothing Ts5hJhKcAh Y Loss
335 61028521 2c5sJd9cKd Nothing 6s4cJd2dKd Y Loss
336 61028516 4s4cQdAs8c Pair 4s4c6dKhTc Y Loss
337 61028511 Qs8c3cTc3d Pair Th5c3c9s3d Y Loss
338 61028505 8s4s7sTc2d Nothing 8s4s7s9sTd Y Loss
339 61028501 8s4sKs4h6h Pair 9c4sKh4hAc Y Loss
340 61028497 7c5hKc4c5s Pair 6h5h3d9d5s Y Loss
341 61028492 6d2sAd7hTc Nothing 8sKhAd8cJs Y Loss
342 61028486 5cQs6cQhJd Pair KhQsAsQh9d Y Pair
343 61028482 4c9s5s2dAh Nothing 3cAd8d8hAh Y 2 Pair
344 61028476 2cAs9d7d4d Nothing 2hAsQcJs7h Y Loss
345 61028473 6d9d9h6cQc 2 Pair 6d9d9h6c3s Y 2 Pair
346 61028469 5h2c5c8d7s Pair 5h8h5c4h6c Y Loss
347 61028463 7dTdTc2c9c Pair 4dTdTcJs3c Y Loss
348 61028458 6cJsKs5h4h Nothing 3sJsKsKh2c Y Pair
349 61028449 3cQhThAd2h Nothing AcQh9dAd4h Y Pair
350 61028444 6s5sTh6d7d Pair 6s4dJd6dQc Y Loss
351 61028436 7hJd2c5s6h Nothing 3hJd6cAc4c Y Loss
352 61028429 Qs9d8c6cQh Pair Qs5s5c8dQh Y 2 Pair
353 61028423 JsQc5d9d2d Nothing JsQcQd3h6h Y Pair
354 61028417 7dAcQdAd2c Pair 8dAcJdAdJs Y 2 Pair
355 61028411 2dTs8c7h9s Nothing 2cTs8c7h9s Y Loss
356 61028406 4c5h8s5dAh Pair 9s5hJc5dTs Y Loss
357 61028399 3s3h6d2hAc Pair 3s3h9c6cTc Y Loss
358 61028396 AhAd7c9hKs Pair AhAd6h2c4s Y Pair
359 61028386 7s3h5c4c2c Nothing Jc2s5c4c2c Y Loss
360 61028383 KcAh3c9d8d Nothing KcAh7s9sQd Y Loss
361 61028377 Kd7h5c5dJd Pair 3h9s5c5dTs Y Loss
362 61028372 JcJs4hTdQh Pair JcJs7s5h4c Y Pair
363 61028366 TsKd4c2sQc Nothing KsKd3sThQc Y Pair
364 61028359 Ad8s7cJc2h Nothing AdQc4sJcKh Y Loss
365 61028355 8s4h4s6d6c 2 Pair 3h4h4s6d6c Y 2 Pair
366 61028350 6s4dJdJh3h Pair 5hAcJdJh8s Y Pair
367 61028344 3hJs2dKs4d Nothing 9cJsTdKsKh Y Pair
368 61028335 KhAc4s7d5c Nothing KhAc4hQc8s Y Loss
369 61028326 3c4c7c8h4s Pair 9d4c2sAd4s Y Loss
370 61028307 4h6d2dKsQd Nothing 6c3hQcKsQd Y Pair
371 61028302 AdTdQc2c5h Nothing Ad4sQc6s3c Y Loss
372 61028288 Tc4d6h3hKd Nothing 5h4d6h3h4h N Lots Loss
373 61028281 8d7cAdTd3d Nothing 8dKhAdTd3d Y Loss
374 61028270 5dTh2cAc5c Nothing 5d7h4d4c5c Y 2 Pair
375 61028266 Ks8hKhJs3s Pair Ks5cKh3dAd Y Pair
376 61028259 6c8d6dAd5h Pair 6cQd6d9c7h Y Loss
377 61028251 TdKc5c2c3c Nothing Qh8c5c2c3c Y Loss
378 61028246 9d5d6s4sQs Nothing 6d7s3sKsQs Y Loss
379 61028238 8dKd3s9d3d Nothing 8dKdAs9d3d Y Loss
380 61028230 Qh8h3c2d7s Nothing Qh2hQs8cKd Y Pair
381 61028203 JcAs3cQsKh Nothing JcAs9hQsKh Y Loss
382 61028199 3c3d5d5c7h 2 Pair 3c3d5d5c4h Y 2 Pair
383 61028194

Finishing Hand#
2 Pairs91
3 of a Kind or Better0


Summarizing the above table, the player played optimally in 556 out of the 560 hands or 99.29% of the time. The 4 hands played incorrectly are simply too few to make any substantial difference to our results. Even if all 4 hands had resulted in 3 of a Kind or Better this would not be even vaguely enough to affect the assessment of this game as unfair.

To demonstrate this we've switched these 4 hands from Losses to 3 of a Kind or Better hands and conducted a Chi Squared comparison. The Chi Squared test is used to compare data sets to establish if they've been drawn from the same distribution. In this case we're comparing the results we would expect in a fair 2 Ways Royal game and the results the player received (adjusted for the 4 misplayed hands).

This would leave us with the following results;


Finishing HandOccurredExpectedCorrect FrequencyActual Frequency
2 Pairs9172.1012.88%16.2500%
3 of a Kind or Better461.4711.0%0.0071%


We then took the figures in the above table and applied the Chi-Squared test to compare the expected results with the actual results;



(You can find a very handy Chi Squared calculator here -

A small P (Probability) value (0.05 or less) is considered mathematically significant and indicates that the samples are not drawn from the same distribution. The Chi Squared calculator tells us that the P value for these samples is 'less than 0.0001'. To get an exact value we used Excel and received the following result;


Changing this to odds we get;

1 in 7,907,899,076,910

That's nearly 8 Trillion. To put this number in perspective, the Andromada Galaxy which contains at least twice the number of stars in the Milky Way, is estimated to have 1 trillion stars (source -

Simply put, given the strategy that the player employed and the results that they received there is no possibility that Skybook’s 2 Ways Royal Video Poker game was functioning fairly at the time that this player played.


Analysis of the Double Feature


After we’d concluded that the main game was not functioning fairly we looked at the player’s results when using the Double-Up feature. The results that the player received from the times that they chose to use their winnings on the Double-Up feature are shown below;




When playing a fair Double-Up feature the chances of winning and losing should be the same. As such if we exclude the Push data and look only at the Win/Loss results we would expect to get 14.5 of each and when we run the Chi Squared test again comparing the actual results with the expected results we get the following;



Again repeating the calculator give us a P value of ‘less than 0.0001’. To get the exact figure we look to Excel;


Once again it is clear that these results were not generated by a fairly functioning Double-Up feature.




Given that 2 entirely separate games are both functioning in a manner that could not be produced by games functioning in a fair fashion, this issue cannot be explained away as any type of coding or update error. The likelihood of 2 different games experiencing accidental errors at the same time is exceptionally small and this data set is far more likely to indicate a systematic integrity issue.

Whether the likely rigs are consistent in nature (present all the time) or triggered by some predetermined event - a player getting too far ahead, the casino daily/weekly/monthly results being below a predetermined level or some other trigger - we can't say for sure and would require further testing, but that there is something substantially wrong with this Video Poker game dealt to this player is entirely unquestionable.

It should also be noted that this is not the first time that Amigotechs Video Poker fairness has been called into question;

In each of the above issues - including this one - the effected games performed in a way that was beneficial to the casino and detrimental to the player. If we were to accept these reports as random mischance we would expect some to favour the casino and some to favour the player. With so many reported issues on top of our findings this situation paints a very dark picture of the integrity of Amigotechs software.

The bottom line - we would strenuously advise all players to avoid any casino using Amigotechs software. They were Blacklisted before this issue due to repeating software integrity issues and this player's experience only confirms that the Blacklist is the correct place for them. For ease of identification we've included a list of casinos we are aware of that use Amigotechs software;


If you are aware of any other properties using Amigotechs software we would appreciate you contacting us so we can add them to the list. You can reach me at [email protected].

If you are concerned about game results you've received at an Amigotechs casino I'd also encourage you to submit a complaint through our Complaint Service. I can't guarantee we'll always be able to reach the concrete conclusions we have in this case, but I'm always happy to take a look.


Skybook's Response


Skybook were informed of our investigation on the 2nd of April 2015. We received a response on the 6th of April 2015 simply informing us that Skybook management would be contacting the player directly on the 7th of April. As far as we're aware from communication with the player, that contact never occurred. We have received no further information or communication from Skybook at the time of this article's publication.

To be completely clear, Skybook were provided with a complete copy of this report on the 6th of April and informed of our intention to publish the report on Friday the 10th of April to allow them time to offer any response or to detail a planned course of action.


Amigotechs' Response


Amigotechs - the software provider directly responsible for the games in question - appear to have been informed about this issue by Skybook on the 6th of April. We assume this is the case as their CEO contacted us directly on the 6th regarding several unrelated issues with content on this site that they wanted changed (incorrect screenshots and a desire not to have their brand associated with the CasinoAffiliatesNow group). At the time of this contact Amigotechs were provided with a complete copy of this report and informed of our intention to publish the report on Friday the 10th of April to allow them time to offer any response or to detail a planned course of action.

There is currently an ongoing conversation with Amigotechs software. To keep to everything completely transparent I'm publishing everything in this conversation and will be updating this as further correspondence is sent/received. You can read the email exchange here -


Did the player get their money back?


As of the 30th of April 2015 we can confirm that the owner of Amigotechs software has personally repaid the player. We've received no explanation for the issue nor any indication that other players will be repaid.

At the time of publication Skybook casino have not returned any of the wrongfully incurred losses to the player ($7175).

This situation put the Dispute Mediation service I offer in a difficult position where the interests of the player who approached us with the issue conflict with those of the player community in general.

For the playing community in general insuring that this issue received as wide exposure as possible was a priority. The more players that are aware of this issue, the fewer players that can/will be affected by it in the future. As such publication of a report was the best course of action, helping to steer players away from this service and to the best online casinos.

For the player individually, the path that was most likely to return their losses is the right course of action. In all likelihood I would have had a far greater chance of getting this player's losses returned if I'd been prepared to deal with this quietly - i.e. spoken to the involved parties and stated that as long as the player's money was returned I wouldn't publish anything further regarding this issue.

So for players in general publication was best and for the individual that actually came to me looking for my help non-publication would have been the best road.

I chose to do what's in the best interests of the most people. While I hold to this decision as the best course of action, I view this choice as actively undermining the service that the player engaged with. Rather than helping the player my actions have hurt them.

As such, if Skybook do not step forward and return all losses from this playing session by the 20th of April I will be making efforts to repay this player myself.




I would like to thank the following people (in no particular order) for their critical eye in reviewing the findings and conclusions of this report;

  • aka23 (Nolan) - Nolan is the owner of BeatingBonuses has for many years been considered the premier site for online Advantage Play and Nolan is one of the premier gaming mathematicians in the business today.
  • Eliot Jacobson - Eliot received his Ph.D. in Mathematics from Arizona University and has worked on both sides of the tables, both as a winning player and as a consultant on the development and protection of casino games. Amongst his many published works in the field of Mathematics he has written 3 books on casino gaming; 'The Blackjack Zone', 'Contemporary Casino Table Game Design' and 'Advanced Advantage Play'. Eliot's blog can be found at (this site has now been bought over).
  • Michael Shackleford - Michael was the founder and is still the principal content writer for He is an Adjunct Professor of Actuarial Sciences at the University of Las Vegas and is widely considered 'the' authority on all things gaming maths related.


Player's Hand History


To allow for independent verification of the player's results - and as such allow any curious individual to submit our analysis and conclusions to testing - below we've provided screen shots of the entire hand history for this player. We also have this information in the form of a video to insure against claims that the screen shots have been tampered with;


--------------------------------------------------- offers some great resources for players included mathematical evaluation to establish which is the best casino welcome bonus, and full casino reviews of new online casinos and the

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